3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Focus and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Perfecular Inc. and AVX Design & Integration, Inc. (collectively, the “Company”, “we”, “our”, or “us”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern basis, which assumes the Company will continue to realize its assets and discharge its liabilities in the normal course of business. The continuation of the Company as a going concern is dependent upon the continued financial support from its shareholders, the ability of the Company to repay its debt obligations, to obtain necessary equity financing to continue operations, and the attainment of profitable operations. Recently, the Company has devoted a substantial amount of resources to research and development to bring the Ubiquitor and its mobile application to full production and distribution. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company had a net loss of $1,988,333 and negative cash flow from operating activities of $1,725,512. As of September 30, 2020, the Company also had an accumulated deficit of $9,167,334. These factors raise certain doubts regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. There are no assurances, however, that the Company will be successful in obtaining an adequate level of financing for the long-term development and commercialization of its Ubiquitor product.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Perfecular Inc. and AVX Design & Integration. Focus and Perfecular, collectively “the entities” were under common control; therefore, in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805-50-45, the acquisition of Perfecular was accounted for as a business combination between entities under common control and treated similar to a pooling of interest transaction. On March 15, 2019, Focus entered into a stock purchase agreement with AVX whereby Focus purchased 100% of the outstanding stock of AVX. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
The Company currently has two operating segments. In accordance with ASC 280, Segment Reporting (“ASC 280”), the Company considers operating segments to be components of the Company’s business for which separate financial information is available and evaluated regularly by management in deciding how to allocate resources and to assess performance. Management reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it has two operating and reportable segments.
Asset information by operating segment is not presented as the chief operating decision maker does not review this information by segment. The reporting segments follow the same accounting policies used in the preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the accompanying consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience, and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources.
The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations will be affected. Significant estimates in the accompanying financial statements include the lease term impacting right-of use asset and lease liability, useful lives of property and equipment, useful lives of intangible assets, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory reserves, debt discounts, valuation of derivatives, and the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets. The Company regularly evaluates its estimates and assumptions.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less to be cash. At times, such investments may be in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insurance limit. There were no cash equivalents held by the Company at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
The Company grants credit to clients that sell the Company’s products or engage in construction service under credit terms that it believes are customary in the industry and do not require collateral to support customer receivables. The accounts receivable balances are generally collected within 30 to 90 days of the product sale.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company estimates an allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical collection trends and review of the current status of trade accounts receivable. It is reasonably possible that the Company's estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts will change. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to $29,539 and $22,612, respectively.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company limits its exposure to credit loss by investing its cash with high credit quality financial institutions.
Inventory consists primarily of parts and finished goods and is valued at the lower of the inventory’s cost or net realizable value under the first-in-first-out method. Management compares the cost of inventory with its market value and an allowance is made to write down inventory to market value, if lower. Inventory allowances are recorded for obsolete or slow-moving inventory based on assumptions about future demand and marketability of products, the impact of new product introductions and specific identification of items, such as discontinued products. These estimates could vary significantly from actual requirements, for example, if future economic conditions, customer inventory levels, or competitive conditions differ from expectations. The Company regularly reviews the value of inventory based on historical usage and estimated future usage. If estimated realized value of our inventory is less than cost, we make provisions in order to reduce its carrying value to its estimated market value. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, inventory reserve amounted to $67,561 and $71,414, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. The cost and accumulated depreciation of assets sold or retired are removed from the respective accounts and any gain or loss is included in earnings. Maintenance and repairs are expensed currently. Major renewals and betterments are capitalized. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method. Estimated useful lives are as follows:
The Company applies the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment, which addresses financial accounting and reporting for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets. ASC 360 requires impairment losses to be recorded on long-lived assets used in operations when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the assets’ carrying amounts. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived assets. Loss on long-lived assets to be disposed of is determined in a similar manner, except that fair values are reduced for the cost of disposal. Long-term assets of the Company are reviewed when circumstances warrant as to whether their carrying value has become impaired. The Company considers assets to be impaired if the carrying value exceeds the future projected cash flows from related operations. The Company also re-evaluates the periods of amortization to determine whether subsequent events and circumstances warrant revised estimates of useful lives. Based on its review at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company believes there was no impairment of its long-lived assets.
The Company’s intangible assets were acquired from AVX. Amortization is computed using the straight-line method, and the Company evaluates for impairments annually. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company determined that the intangible assets associated with the acquisition of AVX were fully impaired. During the year ended December 31, 2019, impairment for intangible assets amounted to $47,975. Estimated useful lives of intangible assets are as follows:
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment at least annually at December 31 and whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate its carrying value may not be recoverable. Assessment of the potential impairment of goodwill is an integral part of the Company’s normal ongoing review of operations. Testing for potential impairment of these assets is significantly dependent on numerous assumptions and reflects management’s best estimates at a particular point in time. The dynamic economic environments in which the Company’s businesses operate and key economic and business assumptions related to projected selling prices, market growth, inflation rates, and operating expense ratios, can significantly affect the outcome of impairment tests. Estimates based on these assumptions may differ significantly from actual results. Changes in factors and assumptions used in assessing potential impairments can have a significant impact on the existence and magnitude of impairments, as well as the time in which such impairments are recognized. The management tests for impairment annually at year end. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company determined that the goodwill associated with the acquisition of certain AVX assets was impaired and took a charge to earnings of $458,490.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, Stock-Based Compensation. Stock-based compensation to employees consist of stock options grants and restricted shares that are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest and is recognized as an expense over the period during which services are received.
The Company calculates the fair value of option grants utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model and estimates the fair value of the stock based upon the estimated fair value of the common stock. The amount of stock-based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized on a straight- line basis over the requisite service period of the award.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company follows paragraph ASC 825-10-50-10 for disclosures about fair value of its financial instruments and paragraph ASC 820-10-35-37 (“Paragraph 820-10-35-37”) to measure the fair value of its financial instruments. Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
To increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements and related disclosures, Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three (3) broad levels. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. The three (3) levels of fair value hierarchy defined by Paragraph 820-10-35-37 are described below:
Financial assets are considered Level 2 when their fair values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar techniques and at least one significant model assumption or input is unobservable.
The carrying amount of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, and accrued expenses, approximate their fair value because of the short maturity of those instruments.
Transactions involving related parties cannot be presumed to be carried out on an arm's-length basis, as the requisite conditions of competitive, free-market dealings may not exist. Representations about transactions with related parties, if made, shall not imply that the related party transactions were consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm's-length transactions unless such representations can be substantiated.
However, it is not practical to determine the fair value of advances from stockholders, if any, due to their related party nature.
On September 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers using the modified retrospective transition approach. The core principle of ASC 606 is that revenue should be recognized in a manner that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled for exchange of those goods or services. The Company’s updated accounting policies and related disclosures are set forth below, including the disclosure for disaggregated revenue. The impact of adopting ASC 606 was not material to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue from the Company is recognized under Topic 606 in a manner that reasonably reflects the delivery of its services and products to customers in return for expected consideration and includes the following elements:
These five elements, as applied to each of the Company’s revenue categories, is summarized below:
Revenue from construction projects is recognized over time using the percentage-of-completion method under the cost approach. The percentage of completion is determined by estimating stage of work completed. Under this approach, recognized contract revenue equals the total estimated contract revenue multiplied by the percentage of completion. Our construction contracts are unit priced, and an account receivable is recorded for amounts invoiced based on actual units produced.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes the cost of services, labor and product incurred to provide product sales, service sales and project sales.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs primarily consist of efforts to refine existing product models and develop new product models.
The Company follows ASC 850-10 for the identification of related parties and disclosure of related party transactions. Pursuant to ASC 850-10-20 the related parties include: a) affiliates of the Company; b) entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of ASC 825–10–15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity; c) trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management; d) principal owners of the Company; e) management of the Company; f) other parties with which the Company may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests; and g) other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
The condensed consolidated financial statements shall include disclosures of material related party transactions, other than compensation arrangements, expense allowances, and other similar items in the ordinary course of business. However, disclosure of transactions that are eliminated in the preparation of consolidated financial statements is not required in those statements. The disclosures shall include: (a) the nature of the relationship(s) involved; (b) a description of the transactions, including transactions to which no amounts or nominal amounts were ascribed, for each of the periods for which income statements are presented, and such other information deemed necessary to an understanding of the effects of the transactions on the consolidated financial statements; (c) the dollar amounts of transactions for each of the periods for which income statements are presented and the effects of any change in the method of establishing the terms from that used in the preceding period; and (d) amounts due from or to related parties as of the date of each balance sheet presented and, if not otherwise apparent, the terms and manner of settlement.
Commitments and Contingencies
The Company follows ASC 450-20 to report accounting for contingencies. Certain conditions may exist as of the date the consolidated financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company, but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against the Company or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, the Company evaluates the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought therein.
If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, and an estimate of the range of possible losses, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.
Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed. Management does not believe, based upon information available at this time that these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, there is no assurance that such matters will not materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial position, and results of operations or cash flows.
Income Tax Provision
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). ASC 740 requires a company to use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, the Company does not foresee generating taxable income in the near future and utilizing its deferred tax asset, therefore, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all of, the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
Under ASC 740, a tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. The Company has no material uncertain tax positions for any of the reporting periods presented.
Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences in recognizing certain income, expense, and credit items for financial reporting purposes and tax reporting purposes. Such deferred income taxes primarily relate to the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their financial reporting amounts. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured by applying enacted statutory tax rates applicable to the future years in which deferred tax assets or liabilities are expected to be settled or realized. There was no material deferred tax asset or liabilities as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company did not identify any material uncertain tax positions.
Basic and Diluted Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Net income (loss) per share is computed pursuant to ASC 260-10-45. Basic net income (loss) per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period.
Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of stock and potentially outstanding shares of stock during the period to reflect the potential dilution that could occur from common shares issuable through contingent shares issuance arrangement, stock options or warrants.
Due to the net loss incurred by the Company, potentially dilutive instruments would be anti-dilutive. Accordingly, diluted loss per share is the same as basic loss for all periods presented. The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The Company follows the guidance in ASC 855-10-50 for the disclosure of subsequent events. The Company will evaluate subsequent events through the date when the financial statements were issued. Pursuant to ASU 2010-09, the Company as an SEC filer considers its financial statements issued when they are widely distributed to users, such as through filing them on EDGAR. Based upon the review, other than described in Note 17 – Subsequent Events, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the condensed consolidated financial statements for prior years to the current year’s presentation. Such reclassifications have no effect on net income as previously reported.