Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Focus and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Perfecular Inc., AVX Design & Integration, Inc., Focus Universal (Shenzhen) Technology Co., LTD, Lusher Bioscientific and AT Tech Systems LLC (collectively, the “Company”, “we”, “our”, or “us”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
The Company currently has three operating segments. (1) Focus and Focus Shenzhen (“Corporate and R&D”) involve non-specific financing, executive expense, operations and investor relations of the public entity, and general shared management and costs across subsidiary units which spread across all functional categories and research and development of technology products. (2) Perfecular and Lusher (“IoT Products”) involve wholesale, marketing, and production of universal smart instruments and devices in the hydroponic and controlled agricultural segments. (3) AVX and AT Tech (“IoT Installation Services”) is an IoT installation and management company specializing in high performance and easy to use audio/video, home theater, lighting control, automation, and integration.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources.
The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations will be affected. Significant estimates in the accompanying financial statements include the lease term impacting right-of use asset and lease liability, useful lives of property and equipment, useful lives of intangible assets, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory reserves, debt discounts, valuation of derivatives, and the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets. The Company regularly evaluates its estimates and assumptions.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less to be cash. At times, such investments may be in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insurance limit. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, approximately $2,651,309 and $3,120,763 of the Company’s cash was not insured by the FDIC. There were no cash equivalents held by the Company as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
The Company grants credit to clients that sell the Company’s products or engage in construction service under credit terms that it believes are customary in the industry and do not require collateral to support customer receivables. The accounts receivable balances are generally collected within 30 to 180 days of the product sale.
Allowance for doubtful accounts
The Company estimates an allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical collection trends and review of the current status of trade accounts receivable. It is reasonably possible that the Company’s estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts will change. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to $228,086 and $222,972, respectively.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company limits its exposure to credit loss by investing its cash with high credit quality financial institutions.
Inventory consists primarily of parts and finished goods and is valued at the lower of the inventory’s cost or net realizable value under the first-in-first-out method. Management compares the cost of inventory with its market value and a fair value adjustment is made to write down inventory to market value, if lower. Inventory fair value adjustments are recorded for obsolete or slow-moving inventory based on assumptions about future demand and marketability of products, the impact of new product introductions and specific identification of items, such as discontinued products. These estimates could vary significantly from actual requirements, for example, if future economic conditions, customer inventory levels or competitive conditions differ from expectations. The Company regularly reviews the value of inventory based on historical usage and estimated future usage. If estimated realized value of our inventory is less than cost, we make provisions in order to reduce its carrying value to its estimated market value.
Marketable Equity Securities
The Company invests part of its excess treasury cash in equity securities and money market funds according to company treasury and investment policies. Marketable securities represent trading securities bought and held primarily for sale in the near-term to generate income on short-term price differences and are stated at fair value. Realized gains and losses are recognized the fair value differences when the trading securities been sold. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized the fair value differences of unsold trading securities for the period end. Both realized and unrealized gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense).
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. The cost and accumulated depreciation of assets sold or retired are removed from the respective accounts and any gain or loss is included in earnings. Maintenance and repairs are expensed currently. Major renewals and betterments are capitalized. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method. Estimated useful lives are as follows:
The Company applies the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment, which addresses financial accounting and reporting for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets. ASC 360 requires impairment losses to be recorded on long-lived assets used in operations when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the assets’ carrying amounts. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived assets. Loss on long-lived assets to be disposed of is determined in a similar manner, except that those fair values are reduced for the cost of disposal. Long-term assets of the Company are reviewed when circumstances warrant as to whether their carrying value has become impaired. The Company considers assets to be impaired if the carrying value exceeds the future projected cash flows from related operations. The Company also re-evaluates the periods of amortization to determine whether subsequent events and circumstances warrant revised estimates of useful lives. Based on its review at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company believes there was no impairment of its long-lived assets.
The Company’s intangible assets were acquired from AT Tech due to customer relationship using multi-period excess earnings method. These intangible assets were valued based on the AT Tech business acquisition. The value based on the assessed income expected to be generated from the existing customer list, namely the carry-over of the existing contracts after a careful evaluation of the customer list. Amortization on the intangible assets was computed by the percentage completed for these existing assets and fully amortized this quarter.
Purchases and sales of treasury stock are accounted for using the cost method. Under this method, shares acquired are recorded at the acquisition price directly to the treasury stock account. The Company does not recognize a gain or loss to income from the purchase and sale of treasury stock.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, Stock-Based Compensation. Stock-based compensation to employees consist of stock options, grants, and restricted shares that are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest and is recognized as an expense over the period during which services are received.
The Company calculates the fair value of option grants utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model and estimates the fair value of the stock based upon the estimated fair value of the common stock. The amount of stock-based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized on a straight- line basis over the requisite service period of the award.
The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in FASB ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own ordinary shares and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.
For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded at their initial fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations. The fair value of the warrants was estimated using a Black-Scholes pricing model (see Note 11). The Company does not have any outstanding warrants as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company follows paragraph ASC 825-10-50-10 for disclosures about fair value of its financial instruments and paragraph ASC 820-10-35-37 (“Paragraph 820-10-35-37”) to measure the fair value of its financial instruments. Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
To increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements and related disclosures, Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three (3) broad levels. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. The three (3) levels of fair value hierarchy defined by Paragraph 820-10-35-37 are described below:
The following table summarize financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2023:
The carrying amount of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, accounts receivable, inventory, other receivables, prepaid expenses, deposit, accounts payable, treasury stock payable and accrued expenses, other current liabilities, customer deposit, approximate their fair value because of the short maturity of those instruments.
Transactions involving related parties cannot be presumed to be carried out on an arm’s-length basis, as the requisite conditions of competitive, free-market dealings may not exist. Representations about transactions with related parties, if made, shall not imply that the related party transactions were consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm’s-length transactions unless such representations can be substantiated.
However, it is not practical to determine the fair value of advances from stockholders, if any, due to their related party nature.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Other comprehensive income (loss) refers to revenues, expenses, gains and losses that under generally accepted accounting principles are included in comprehensive income but are excluded from net income (loss) as these amounts are recorded directly as an adjustment to stockholders’ equity. The Company’s other comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and for the year ended December 31, 2022 was comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments.
On September 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers using the modified retrospective transition approach. The core principle of ASC 606 is that revenue should be recognized in a manner that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled for exchange of those goods or services. The Company’s updated accounting policies and related disclosures are set forth below, including the disclosure for disaggregated revenue. The impact of adopting ASC 606 was not material to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue from the Company is recognized under Topic 606 in a manner that reasonably reflects the delivery of its services and products to customers in return for expected consideration and includes the following elements:
These five elements, as applied to each of the Company’s revenue category, is summarized below:
Revenue from our project construction is recognized over time using the percentage-of-completion method under the cost approach. The percentage of completion is determined by estimating stage of work completed. Under this approach, recognized contract revenue equals the total estimated contract revenue multiplied by the percentage of completion. Our construction contracts are unit priced, and an account receivable is recorded for amounts invoiced based on actual units produced.
Cost of Revenue, excluding depreciation & amortization
Cost of revenue includes the cost of services, labor and product incurred to provide product sales, service sales and project sales.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs primarily consist of efforts to refine existing product models and develop new product models.
The Company follows ASC 850-10 for the identification of related parties and disclosure of related party transactions. Pursuant to ASC 850-10-20 the related parties include: a) affiliates of the Company; b) entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of ASC 825–10–15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity; c) trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management; d) principal owners of the Company; e) management of the Company; f) other parties with which the Company may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests; and g) other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements shall include disclosures of material related party transactions, other than compensation arrangements, expense allowances, and other similar items in the ordinary course of business. However, disclosure of transactions that are eliminated in the preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements is not required in those statements. The disclosures shall include: (a) the nature of the relationship(s) involved; (b) a description of the transactions, including transactions to which no amounts or nominal amounts were ascribed, for each of the periods for which income statements are presented, and such other information deemed necessary to an understanding of the effects of the transactions on the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements; (c) the dollar amounts of transactions for each of the periods for which income statements are presented and the effects of any change in the method of establishing the terms from that used in the preceding period; and (d) amounts due from or to related parties as of the date of each balance sheet presented and, if not otherwise apparent, the terms and manner of settlement.
Commitments and Contingencies
The Company follows ASC 450-20 to report accounting for contingencies. Certain conditions may exist as of the date the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against the Company or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, the Company evaluates the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought therein.
If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, and an estimate of the range of possible losses, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.
Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed. Management does not believe, based upon information available at this time that these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, there is no assurance that such matters will not materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial position, and results of operations or cash flows.
Gain on Bargain Purchase
A bargain purchase gain is recognized when the net assets acquired in a business combination have a higher fair value than the consideration paid.
Income Tax Provision
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes. ASC 740 requires a company to use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, the Company does not foresee generating taxable income in the near future and utilizing its deferred tax asset, therefore, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all of, the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
Under ASC 740, a tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. The Company has no material uncertain tax positions for any of the reporting periods presented.
Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences in recognizing certain income, expense and credit items for financial reporting purposes and tax reporting purposes. Such deferred income taxes primarily relate to the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their financial reporting amounts. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured by applying enacted statutory tax rates applicable to the future years in which deferred tax assets or liabilities are expected to be settled or realized. There was no material deferred tax asset or liabilities as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company did not identify any material uncertain tax positions.
Net income (loss) per share is computed pursuant to ASC 260-10-45. Basic net income (loss) per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period.
Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of stock and potentially outstanding shares of stock during the period to reflect the potential dilution that could occur from common shares issuable through contingent shares issuance arrangement, stock options or warrants.
Due to the net loss incurred by the Company, potentially dilutive instruments would be anti-dilutive. Accordingly, diluted loss per share is the same as basic loss for all periods presented. The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for prior period to the current year’s presentation. Such reclassifications have no effect on net income as previously reported.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
The reporting and functional currency of Focus is the USD. The functional currency of Focus Universal (Shenzhen) Technology Co. LTD, a wholly owned subsidiary of Focus located in China, is the Renminbi (“RMB”).
For financial reporting purposes, the financial statements of the Company’s Chinese subsidiary, which are prepared using the RMB, are translated into the Company’s reporting currency, USD. Assets and liabilities are translated using the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated using average exchange rates prevailing during each reporting period. Stockholders’ equity is translated at historical exchange rates. Adjustments resulting from the translation are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity.
Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. The resulting exchange difference, presented as foreign currency transaction loss, is included in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. The exchange rates used for unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are as follows: